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Tag Archives: galaxies

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany have produced the first detailed three-dimensional map of the stars that form the inner regions of our Milky Way, the nuclear bulge (see p. 389).

Credit: ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt

Using publicly available data from ESO’s VISTA survey telescope in Chile, the team found a peanut-shaped bulge with an elongated bar and a prominent X-structure, which had been hinted at in previous studies. This indicates that the Milky Way was originally a pure disk of stars, which then formed a thin bar, before buckling into the boxy peanut shape seen today.

The scientists expect that this measurement of the three-dimensional density of the bulge will help to constrain galaxy evolution models for both our Milky Way and spiral galaxies in general. It will also support a number of further studies on different stellar populations, gas flows, or microlensing.

Read the MPE press release and the ESO press release for more images and a movie simulation of the bulge rotating. The research is published as “Mapping the three-dimensional density of the Galactic bulge with VVV red clump stars” by C. Wegg et al. in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.


New observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile have given astronomers the best view yet of how vigorous star formation can blast gas out of a galaxy and starve future generations of stars of the fuel they need to form and grow. Dramatic new images show enormous outflows of molecular gas ejected by star-forming regions in the nearby Sculptor Galaxy. These new results help to explain the strange paucity of very massive galaxies in the Universe. The study was published in the journal Nature on 25 July 2013.

The Sculptor Galaxy, also known as NGC 253, is a spiral galaxy located in the southern constellation of Sculptor. Lying at a distance of around 11.5 million light-years from our Solar System it is one of our closer intergalactic neighbors, and one of the closest ‘starburst galaxies,’ those which produce at an exceptionally high rate. Using ALMA, astronomers have discovered billowing columns of cold, dense gas fleeing from the center of the galactic disc. These results may help to explain why astronomers have found surprisingly few high-mass galaxies throughout the cosmos.

Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Erik Rosolowsky

See the full ESO press release here, including links to more images and movies.