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Tag Archives: gravitational lens

From a press release of the Space Telescope Science Institute, January 26, 2017:

By using galaxies as giant gravitational lenses, an international group of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have made an independent measurement of how fast the Universe is expanding. The newly measured expansion rate for the local Universe is consistent with earlier findings. These are, however, in intriguing disagreement with measurements of the early Universe. This hints at a fundamental problem at the very heart of our understanding of the cosmos.

The Hubble constant — the rate at which the Universe is expanding — is one of the fundamental quantities describing our Universe. A group of astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope and other telescopes in space and on the ground to observe five galaxies in order to arrive at an independent measurement of the Hubble constant. This new measurement is completely independent of — but in excellent agreement with — other measurements of the Hubble constant in the local Universe that used Cepheid variable stars and supernovae as points of reference.

However, the value measured by this team, as well as those measured using Cepheids and supernovae, are different from the measurement made by the ESA Planck satellite. But there is an important distinction — Planck measured the Hubble constant for the early Universe by observing the cosmic microwave background.

Studied lensed quasars of H0LiCOW collaboration

Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA, Suyu et al.

The targets of the new study were massive galaxies positioned between Earth and very distant quasars — incredibly luminous galaxy cores. The light from the more distant quasars is bent around the huge masses of the galaxies as a result of strong gravitational lensing. This creates multiple images of the background quasar, some smeared into extended arcs.

Because galaxies do not create perfectly spherical distortions in the fabric of space and the lensing galaxies and quasars are not perfectly aligned, the light from the different images of the background quasar follows paths which have slightly different lengths. Since the brightness of quasars changes over time, astronomers can see the different images flicker at different times, the delays between them depending on the lengths of the paths the light has taken. These delays are directly related to the value of the Hubble constant.

Links: the full STScI press release, including further figures and links to published papers.

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A recent article in Nature describes how a supermassive black hole’s spin has been measured via the gravitational lens of a foreground galaxy, that fortuitously lies along the same line-of-sight. The new measurements have enabled astronomers to find that a supermassive black hole powering a distant quasar has grown through coherent, rather than random, episodes of mass accretion (see Section 17.3, p. 458-459). The following text is a digest of Guido Risalti’s summary in Nature‘s ‘News and views’ section, March 13, 2014.

Supermassive black holes are simple systems. They are characterized by just two quantities, their mass and their spin. Whereas the total amount of accretion and any mergers that a supermassive black hole undergoes are encoded in its mass, how this mass was assembled is encoded in its spin. A few ordered accretion events or mergers of large black holes produce high spins, and short, random accretion processes produce low spins. Measuring these spins is therefore a major goal of extragalactic astronomy: the spins of supermassive black holes hold a key to understanding the evolution of their host galaxies.

But how can we measure the spins? According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, a black hole’s gravitational field twists space-time around it. Such twisting depends on the black hole’s spin, so measuring the twisting allows the spin to be estimated. The signature of space-time distortion is imprinted on the emission of radiation from regions close to the black hole’s event horizon – the surface beyond which no radiation can escape. The best way to perform such a measurement is to observe X-rays reflected by the disk.

In their study, R. C. Reis and colleagues break new ground by obtaining a spin measurement of a quasar at a distance of more than 6 billion light years from Earth, from a time when the Universe was about half its current age. This remarkable result was possible owing to the exceptional nature of the observed source – a quadruply imaged, gravitationally lensed quasar.

Credit: ACS & NICMOS/ESA/HST/STScI/AURA/NASA

The light from the distant quasar is both magnified and split into four different images by the gravitational field of a foreground elliptical galaxy (the lens) that, by chance, is on the line of sight of the quasar. For this reason, the authors could analyse four ‘copies’ of the X-ray spectrum of the quasar, each with an intensity significantly magnified by the lens. The resulting X-ray spectra have a quality that matches the best that has been obtained for nearby sources, and allowed a robust measurement of the black hole’s spin. As it turns out, the spin is large (close to the highest possible value that theory predicts), suggesting that the black hole acquired its mass through coherent phases of mass accretion.

Links: The Nature article (behind paywall); a widefield view of the lens via U. Michigan press release.