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From a press release originally published on the John Hopkins Laboratory website on October 15, 2015.

Following the first exploration of the Pluto system in history, NASA’s New Horizons team have published their first research paper detailing their findings of the distant planet.

The paper, entitled “The Pluto System: Initial Results from its Exploration by New Horizons,” describes an unusual heart-shaped region, intriguing moons, and a surprising degree of diversity and complexity in the Pluto System.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

Team members believe that some of the processes on Pluto have occurred relatively recently, including those which involve the water-ice rich crust that they have discovered. This raises fundamental questions about how small planets remain active billions of years after their formation.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft made it to within 7,750 miles of Pluto’s surface at its point of closest approach, gathering so much data that scientists won’t see the extent of it for another year.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute

Jim Green, director of planetary science at NASA Headquarters in Washington, describes the mission as only the beginning. “The New Horizons mission completes our initial reconnaissance of the solar system, giving humanity our first look at this fascinating world and its system of moons. New Horizons is not only writing the textbook on the Pluto system, it’s serving to inspire current and future generations to keep exploring — to keep searching for what’s beyond the next hill.”

For more information on what we know so far about the dwarf planet right on the fringes of our Solar system, see Chapter 8.1 of The Cosmos.

Link: for the original press release, click here.

From a JPL news release, February 10, 2015:

Astronomers tinkering with ice and organics in the lab may have discovered why comets are encased in a hard, outer crust. Using an icebox-like instrument nicknamed Himalaya, the researchers show that fluffy ice on the surface of a comet would crystalize and harden as the comet heads toward the Sun and warms up. As the water-ice crystals form, becoming denser and more ordered, other molecules containing carbon would be expelled to the comet’s surface. The result is a crunchy comet crust sprinkled with organic dust, like a deep-fried ice cream: the crust is made of crystalline ice, while the interior is colder and more porous. The organics are like a final layer of chocolate on top.

comet-ice-cream-670x440-150210-jpg

Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NAVCAM

The composition of comets is important to understanding how they might have delivered water and organics to our nascent, bubbling-hot Earth. New results from the Rosetta mission show that asteroids may have been the primary carriers of life’s ingredients; however, the debate is ongoing and comets may have played a role.

Links: JPL news article; Rosetta home.