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Tag Archives: nebula

From a press release of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), September 23, 2015:

A new image of the rose-colored star forming region Messier 17 was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile. It is one of the sharpest images showing the entire nebula and not only reveals its full size but also retains fine detail throughout the cosmic landscape of gas clouds, dust and newborn stars.

Credit: ESO

Credit: ESO

Although officially known as Messier 17, its nicknames include: the Omega Nebula, the Swan Nebula, the Checkmark Nebula, the Horseshoe Nebula and the Lobster Nebula. M17 is located about 5500 light-years from Earth near the plane of the Milky Way and in the constellation of Sagittarius. The object spans a big section of the sky — its gas and dust clouds measure about 15 light-years across. This material is fueling the birth of new stars and the wide field of view of the new picture reveals many stars in front of, in, or behind M17.

The nebula appears as a complex red structure with some graduation to pink. Its coloring is a signature of glowing hydrogen gas. The short-lived blue stars that recently formed in Messier 17 emit enough ultraviolet light to heat up surrounding gas to the extent that it begins to glow brightly. In the central region the colors are lighter, and some parts appear white. This white color is real — it arises as a result of mixing the light from the hottest gas with the starlight reflected by dust. Throughout this rosy glow, the nebula shows a web of darker regions of dust that obscure the light. This obscuring material is also glowing and — although these areas are dark in this visible-light image — they look bright when observed using infrared cameras.

Links: full ESO press release, including further images and movies of M17.

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From a HST press release, September 24, 2015:

A stunning new set of images from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 capture the scattered stellar remains in spectacular new detail and reveal its expansion over the years since HST last captured them, in 1997.

Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team

Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team

Deriving its name from its delicate, draped filamentary structures, the beautiful Veil Nebula is one of the best-known supernova remnants. It formed from the violent death of a star twenty times the mass of the Sun that exploded about 8000 years ago. Located roughly 2100 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus (The Swan), this brightly coloured cloud of glowing debris spans approximately 110 light-years.

Astronomers suspect that before the Veil Nebula’s source star exploded it expelled a strong stellar wind. This wind blew a large cavity into the surrounding interstellar gas. As the shock wave from the supernova expands outwards, it encounters the walls of this cavity — and forms the nebula’s distinctive structures. Bright filaments are produced as the shock wave interacts with a relatively dense cavity wall, whilst fainter structures are generated by regions nearly devoid of material. The Veil Nebula’s colorful appearance is generated by variations in the temperatures and densities of the chemical elements present; they do not represent the real colors of the nebula.

Links: Full press release and description; images for download and video.

Astronomers have discovered a distant quasar illuminating a vast nebula of diffuse gas, revealing for the first time part of the network of filaments thought to connect galaxies in a cosmic ‘web’. Researchers at the University of California, Santa Cruz, led the study, published January 19 in the journal, Nature. Using the 10-meter Keck I telescope in Hawaii, the researchers detected a very large, luminous nebula of gas extending about 2 million light-years across intergalactic space.

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Credit: S. Cantalupo (UCSC); Joel Primack (UCSC); Anatoly Klypin (NMSU)

The standard cosmological model of structure formation in the Universe predicts that galaxies are embedded in a cosmic web of matter, most of which (about 84 percent) is invisible dark matter. This web is seen in the results from computer simulations of the evolution of structure in the Universe, which show the distribution of dark matter on large scales, including the dark matter halos in which galaxies form and the cosmic web of filaments that connect them. Gravity causes ordinary matter to follow the distribution of dark matter, so filaments of diffuse, ionized gas are expected to trace a pattern similar to that seen in dark matter simulations.

Until now, these filaments have never been seen. Intergalactic gas has been detected by its absorption of light from bright background sources, but those results don’t reveal how the gas is distributed. In this study, the researchers detected the fluorescent glow of hydrogen gas resulting from its illumination by intense radiation from the quasar.

The hydrogen gas illuminated by the quasar emits ultraviolet light known as Lyman alpha radiation. The distance to the quasar is so great (about 10 billion light-years) that the emitted light is “stretched” by the expansion of the Universe from an invisible ultraviolet wavelength to a visible shade of violet by the time it reaches the Keck telescope and the spectrometer used for this discovery. Knowing the distance to the quasar, the researchers calculated the wavelength for Lyman alpha radiation from that distance and built a special filter to get an image at that wavelength.

Links: further images and information via the full Keck Observatory press release.